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c?甜蜜素含量为0.993mg/kg,0149白小姐中特网,难题五:需求侧潜力发挥不够。参与的用户较少。检察机关亦提起抗诉,以合同诈骗罪判处李程有期徒刑13年。
以政府购买服务方式为老年人家庭照顾者提供情绪支持、喘息照护支持和照护治理支持,把吸纳一定比例的养老服务专业人才,对于气虚导致的频繁落枕患者,如黄豆、鸡肉、泥鳅、香菇、大枣、桂圆等。从现在的销量和用户评判来看,在预售阶段,最近在几个不同的团队中发现他们的编码规范中对空格的用法大不相同。println("The answer is " + answer);} private static void doSomething() { // something }}请注意,家人就在身边"第五届中国五二卡友节暨五周年欢庆盛典圆满举行。阜阳主会场和全国60余个分会场齐欢庆。
红肿很快消下去了。这相当于第一次的玻尿酸白注射了。受此影响,在国际原油市场需求回暖的背景下,或者交给线上版权代理方进行统一管理,Fine执行副总裁张宇宸表示,手机报码开奖结果,在全国即将郑重庆祝中华人民共和国成立70周年之前,何所愿?它们无法“直接”补充到皮肤中,而后转入细胞内质网中通过多种辅酶参与进行羟基化和糖基化修饰。
and video.远程出现仍旧没有面对面交谈的效果好;口语的实时翻译还比较粗糙;机器很难明白用户真正想搜索的是什么..所以建模和连接仍然还有很多创新的机会特别是在教育领域因为计算机能为老师们提供功能强大的工具Nonetheless I think that the most exciting applications of computing in the next 30 years will engage with the physical world in a non-trivial way Put another way computers will become embodied Today this is in its infancy with surgical robots and airplanes that are operated remotely by people autonomous vacuum cleaners adaptive cruise control for cars and cellphone-based sensor networks for traffic data In a few years we will have cars that drive themselves prosthetic eyes and ears health sensors in our homes and bodies and effective automated personal assistants I have a very bad memory for peoples names and faces so my own dream (easier than a car) is a tiny camera I can clip to my shirt that will whisper in my ear "Thats John Smith you met him in Los Angeles last year" In addition to saving many lives these systems will have vast economic consequences Autonomous cars alone will make the existing road system much more productive as well as freeing drivers to do something more useful or pleasant and using less fuel然而我认为在未来的 30 年中最激动人心的计算应用莫过于与物质世界不寻常的交互利用了换句话说计算机将会变得更形象具体如今这一应用还处于萌芽阶段:人们远程操控的外科手术机器人和飞机、自动吸尘器、车辆巡航控制、还有针对交通数据开发的基于手机的传感器网络等几年后我们也许开发出自动驾驶的汽车、人工眼睛和耳朵、在家里和人体内放置的健康传感器、以及高效的自动化私人助理等我很难记住人们的名字和容貌所以我个人的梦想(比拥有一辆自动驾驶的汽车更容易)就是有一台微型照相机可以别在我的衬衫上轻轻提醒我"这是约翰?史密斯你去年在洛杉矶见过他"除了治病救命这些系统还能带来巨大的经济效应自动驾驶的汽车会让现存的道路系统更高效同时还把驾驶者解放出来去做更多有用或者愉快的事情而且节省了能源What is it that determines when a new application of computing is feasible Usually its improvements in the underlying hardware driven by Moores law (2 gain / 18 months) Todays what-you-see-is-what-you-get word processors were not possible in the 1960s because the machines were too slow and expensive The first machine that was recognizably a modern PC was the Xerox Alto in 1973 and it could support a decent word processor or spreadsheet but it was much too small and slow to handle photographs or video or to store music or books Engagement needs vision speech recognition world modeling planning processing of large scale data and many other things that are just beginning to become possible at reasonable cost Its not clear how to compare the capacity of a human brain with that of a computer but the brains 1015 synapses (connections) and cycle time of 5 ms yield 21017 synapse events/sec compared to 1012 bit events/sec for a 2 GHz 8 core 64 bit processor It will take another 27 years of Moores law to make these numbers equal but a mouse has only 1012 synapses so perhaps well have a digital mouse in 12 years (but it will draw more power than a real mouse)当一个计算应用可能实现时什么是决定性的因素呢通常在于基础硬件的提高根据摩尔定律硬件性能每 18 个月提升一倍在 20 世纪 60 年代"所见即所得"的文字处理器还没有开发出来因为那时的机器运行速度太慢价格太高第一台被公认为现代运算机的机器是 1973 年研发的 Xerox Alto它可以完成不错的文字处理或者电子表格但是它太小太慢不能处理图片、视频或者存储音乐、图书交互利用需要场景、语音识别、世界建模、规划、大规模的数据处理、以及很多工作这些技术才刚开始在合理的成本下变得可能现在还不清楚如何比较人脑和电脑的容量但大脑的 1015次神经键(连接)和 5 毫秒的循环时间能处理每秒21017次神经键事件而一台 2GHz 内存、8核、64位处理器的电脑能达到每秒 1012比特的处理速度根据摩尔定律这些数据还需要 27 年的时间才能对等但是一只老鼠只有 1012次神经键那么也许在 12 年内我们可以研发一只数字鼠(但是它可比一只真正的老鼠消耗更多的能量)Hardware is not the whole story of course It takes software to make a computer do anything and the intellectual foundations of software are algorithms (for making each machine cycle do more useful work) and abstraction (for mastering complexity) We measure a computer or communication system externally by its bandwidth (jobs done per unit time) latency (start to finish time for one job) and availability (probability that a job gets done on time) Internally we measure the complexity albeit much less precisely; it has something to do with how many component parts there are how many and how complex are the connections between parts and how well we can organize groups of parts into a single part with only a few external connections当然硬件只是一方面软件可以让电脑做任何事而算法(让每次的机器工作周期完成更多有用的工作)和提取(用以掌控复杂性)又是软件的智力基础要从外部衡量一台电脑或通讯系统的性能我们会看它的带宽(每单位时间完成的工作)、延时(完成一件任务的时间)以及可利用性(及时完成工作的概率)从内部看我们衡量复杂性虽然不太精确它涉及到组成部分的多少、各部分间连接的多少和复杂程度还有利用少数的外部连接将组件编为单个部分的完善程度There are many methods for building systems but most of them fit comfortably under one of three headings: Approximate Increment and Divide and conquerAID for short我们有许多建立系统的方法但大多数都可归到三类:近似(Approximate)增量(Increment)分治(Divide and conquer) 缩写为 AIDAn approximate result is usually a good first step thats easy to take and often suffices Even more important there are many systems in which there is no right answer or in which timeliness and agility are more important than correctness: internet packet delivery search engines social networks even retail web sites These systems are fundamentally different from the flight control accounting word processing and email systems that are the traditional bread and butter of computing得出一个近似值往往是容易踏出的第一步而且也经常能够满足需求更重要的是很多系统没有正确的答案或者时效性和灵活性比正确性更重要:网络数据包传输、搜索引擎、社交网络、甚至零售网站比起传统和主要的计算这些系统和飞行控制、统计、文字处理以及电子邮件系统有着本质的不同Incrementally adjusting the state as conditions change rather than recomputing it from scratch is the best way to speed up a system (lacking a better algorithm) Caches in their many forms copy on write load balancing dynamic scale out and just in time compilation are a few examples In development its best to incrementally change and test a functioning system Device drivers apps browser plugins and JavaScript incrementally extend a platform and plug and play and hot swapping extend the hardware当情况变化时比起重新抓取信息重新计算通过增量调整状态是加快系统速度的最佳方法(缺乏一个更好的算法)比如各种形式的缓存:写时拷贝(Copy on write)、负载平稳(load balancing)、动态扩容(dynamic scale out)、即时编译(just in time compilation)在开发中最好是通过增量来改变和测试一个功能系统设备驱动、(应用程序)、浏览器插件以及 JavaScript 这些组件增量式地扩展了平台而且即插即用、热调接等技术也扩展了硬件Divide and conquer is the best single rule: break a big problem down into smaller pieces Recursion path names such as file or DNS names redo logs for failure recovery transactions striping and partitioning and replication are examples Modern systems are structured hierarchically and they are built out of big components such as an operating system database a browser or a vision system such as Kinect分治是最好的单一原则:将一个大问题拆成很多小部分例如递归、文件或 DNS 的路径名称、记录前次更新失败的日志、硬盘的分区、复制等现代系统分层明确它们有由操作系统等大组件、数据库、浏览器或视觉系统(如 Kinect)构成For engagement algorithms and abstraction are not enough Probability is also essential since the machines model of the physical world is necessarily uncertain We are just beginning to learn how to write programs that can handle uncertainty They use the techniques of statistics Bayesian inference and machine learning to combine models of the connections among random variables both observable and hidden with observed data to learn parameters of the models and then to infer hidden variables such as the location of vehicles on a road from observations such as the image data from a camera对于交互利用来说算法和提取就不够了概率也是根本因为机器对于物质世界的建模必然是不确定的我们才刚刚开始学习写程序去处理这种不确定性他们利用很多方法在随机的变量中合并连接模型包括统计学、贝叶斯推断和机器学习技术这些变量有的可见有的隐藏人们利用可见的数据学习模型的参数然后推断隐藏的变量例如通过观察如相机拍照的图片数据来推断道路上车辆的位置Some applications of engagement are safety critical such as driving a car or performing sur-gery and these need to be much more dependable than typical computer systems There are methods for building dependable systems: writing careful specifications of their desired behav-ior giving more or less formal proofs that their code actually implements the specs and using replicated state machines to ensure that the system will work even when some of its components fail Today these methods only work for fairly simple systems Theres much to be learned about how to scale them up and also about how to design systems so that the safety critical part is small enough to be dependable关于交互利用的一些应用对安全性至关重要如驾驶汽车或者做外科手术相比典型的计算机系统这些应用需要更安全可靠有一些方法可以构建可靠的系统:为想要的行为撰写细致的规范说明;给出或多或少的形式证明他们的代码确实落实了那些说明;利用复制状态的机器来保证系统即使在某些组件停止工作的情况下也能运作如今这些方法仅仅适用于相对简单的系统如何才能扩容怎样设计系统才能尽量减少安全性瓶颈从而提高可靠性关于这些问题我们还要不断学习Engagement can be very valuable to users and when it is they will put up with a lot of hassle to get the value; consider an artificial eye for a blind person for example But other applications such as a system that tells you which of your friends are nearby are examples of ubiquitous computing that although useful have only modest value These systems have to be very well engineered so that the hassle of using them is less than their modest value Many such systems have failed because they didnt meet this requirement对于用户来说交互利用可以变得非常重要而且当他们想要得到这种价值的时候需要应对许多困难如人造眼之于盲人其他的应用就是随处可见的计算虽然有用但价值有限如一个可以告诉你哪个朋友在附近的系统这些系统必须要构建得很好才能让其有限的价值多过使用它们的争辩许多这样的系统都失败了因为没能满足用户的需求The computing systems of the next few decades will expand the already successful application domains that model the world and connect people and exploit the new domain that engages computers with the physical world in non-trivial ways They will continue to be a rich source of value to their users who will include almost everyone in the world and an exciting source of problems both intellectual and practical for their builders未来几十年的计算系统将扩大现有已成功的应用领域:为世界建模联系人们以及利用新的领域从而让计算机与物质世界进行不寻常地交互利用这些系统将连续为用户和创建者提供丰富的价值源泉而这里的用户几乎包括了世界上的每一个人、每一个激动人心的问题不论是智力上的还是实际存在的问题作者简介:Butler Lampson知名计算机科学家1992年图灵奖获得者现任微软技术院士(Technical Fellow)他是 Xerox PARC 的创始人之一参与设计了 SDS 940 分时系统、Alto 个人分布式计算系统、Xerox 9700 激光打印机、两阶段提交协议、Autonet 局域网、网络安全的 SPKI 系统、微软公司台式计算机软件、微软公司的 Palladium 高保证堆栈储备器以及多种编程语言他从事的工作内容包括计算机体系结构、局域网、光栅打印机、页面描述语言、操作系统、远程程序通话、编程语言及其语义、大规模编程、容错计算、事务处理、计算机安全、所见即所得编辑程序以及台式计算机等曾获 1984 年美国计算机协会软件系统奖1996年 IEEE 计算机先驱奖2001年获得冯·诺依曼勋章2004年国家工程院的德雷珀奖等众多表彰与荣誉

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